1. Client Access Licensing
When purchasing a Microsoft server (Exchange, SharePoint Portal, SQL, Systems Management, Windows or Windows Terminal), a licence is required for each copy of the server software installed. In addition, a client access licence (CAL) is required, for the same server version, for each user or device (or combination of both) that accesses or uses the server software. The only time you do not need a CAL is if:-
- access is through the Internet and is un-authenticated
- access is to a server running Windows Server Web Edition
- access or use is by an external user and External Connector licences are acquired instead of CALs
Authenticated access is defined as an exchange of user or application credentials between the server software and a user or device. This includes students accessing university servers, connected to the University network, from their own machines. An example of this exception would be unidentified (anonymous) users browsing a public web site.
Downgrade rights are available with CALs, so a client licence for Windows Server. However, a client licence for Windows Server 2000 cannot be used with Windows Server 2016.
2. Device-based vs. User-based CALs
Since the release of the Windows 2003 Servers, there are now two types of CALs available, a device-based or a user-based CAL. This means you can acquire a Windows CAL for every device (used by any user) accessing your servers, or you can acquire a Windows CAL for every named user accessing your servers (from any device). Please note that the CALs available under the Microsoft Campus agreement are device CALs.
User CALs and device CALs are both available under the Select agreement.
3. Client Access Licensing Modes
After you have selected a licence type, Device CAL or User CAL, you have the option to use the software in two different modes: Per User/Per Device or Per Server mode. Both modes are available for either type of licence.
3.1. Per User/Per Device
A separate CAL is required for each user or device that accesses or uses the server software on any of your servers. The number of CALs required equals the maximum number of users or devices that may access the server software. If you choose this licensing mode your choice is permanent. You can, however, reassign a CAL from one device to another device or from one user to another user, provided the reassignment is made either (a) permanently away from the one device or user or (b) temporarily to accommodate the use of the Windows CAL either by a loaner device, while a permanent device is out of service, or by a temporary worker, while a regular employee is absent.
This mode tends to be the most economical designation for CALs in distributed computing environment where multiple servers within an organization provide services across most devices or users.
Note that Per User/Per Device mode replaces the previous Per Seat mode.
3.2. Per Server Mode
A separate CAL (of either type) is required for each user or device that accesses or uses the server software on any of your servers. The number of Windows CALs required equals the maximum number of users or devices that may simultaneously access or use the server software installed on a particular server. The CALs you acquire are designated for use exclusively with a particular server.
If you choose this licensing mode, you have a one-time right to switch to the other licensing mode - Per User/Per Device mode. Your CALs would then be used in Per User/Per Device mode instead.
This mode tends to be the most economical designation for CALs in computing environments where a small number of servers have limited access requirements.
3.3. Terminal Server (TS)
Terminal Services, as found in Windows Server since 2003, lets you remotely execute applications on a Windows-based server from a wide range of devices over virtually any type of network connection. When a server is configured in the Terminal Server role it can be referred to as a Terminal Server. The Terminal Services functionality is included with the acquisition of a Windows Server licence. However, when a user or device accesses a Terminal Server, that user or device is required to have a Terminal Server CAL (in addition to a Windows CAL) in order to be compliant with the licensing terms of the product.
TS CALs are required for Windows XP Professional licences because desktop equivalency has been removed by Microsoft. This also means that TS CALs are no longer included freely under the Microsoft Campus agreement and they must now be purchased separately under the Microsoft Select or Campus agreements, see below, Acquiring CALs.
4. Acquiring CALs
CALs (Device-based) for University-owned machines are available under the Microsoft Campus agreement. The Core CAL (for Windows, Exchange, SMS** & Share Point Portal servers but NOT for Terminal Services or SQL CALs) is centrally funded so there is no charge for this.
** also known as "System Management Configuration Licenses"
Where University-owned machines are accessing Microsoft server software, through authenticated access, a 'faculty CAL' is required.
Where personal machines owned by students are accessing University network servers running Microsoft server software, through authenticated access, a 'student CAL' is required.
These CALs (device-based) for student machines or for University-owned (Faculty) machines are available under the Campus agreement for the following servers (minimum purchase 300 units):-
- Exchange Server
- Windows Server
- SharePoint Portal Server
- SQL Server
- Systems Management Server
- Windows Terminal Server
There is also a Core CAL available for student machines which covers Windows, Exchange, SMS & Share Point Portal servers. Any Unit can take out their own Campus licence for these CALs, providing they purchase a minimum of 300 units.
These CALs are also available for university-owned machines only (device-based or user-based) under the Microsoft Select agreement, with no minimum purchase requirement.
For details on pricing via the Select agreement refer to the IT Services Shop or to purchase your own Campus agreement CAL license contact Bytes at email@example.com
5. Other Options for Client Licensing
If you would like to allow external users to access your network, you have two licensing options:
- Acquire CALs for each of your external users.
- Acquire External Connector licences for each copy of the Server software that will be accessed by your external users. (External Connector Licences are only available for Windows Server or Windows Server Terminal Server)
An external user is a person who is not an employee or member of the University, or its affiliates, and is not someone to whom you provide hosted services using the server software.
5.1. External Connector
The External Connector licences replace the previous Internet Connector licences for Windows 2000 & Windows 2000 Terminal Services.
An External Connector licence can be acquired for servers running Windows Server, Standard, Enterprise, or Datacenter Editions. It is not applicable to Web Edition. You can also use it with an earlier version of the server software but no earlier than Windows NT Server 4.0 (due to technical incompatibility). External Connector licences should be acquired for each Windows server that the external user is accessing (not just for the server to which they are authenticating).
The External Connector licences are recommended for use when large numbers of anonymous authenticated users will be accessing your server software.
5.2. Windows Server, Web Edition
The Windows Server, Web Edition is a single-purpose Web server which can be used solely to deploy Web pages, Web applications, and Web services. It is a limited, scaled-down version of the other editions of Windows Server. Windows CALs are not applicable to Windows Server, Web Edition. However, Web Edition can be used as the scale-out front end for applications such as Windows SharePoint Services and Windows Rights Management Services. In these scale-out configurations, Windows CALs will be required since Web Edition servers are connecting to backend applications running on Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition and above.
Both the External Connector licences and the Windows Server, Web Edition are available for purchase under the Microsoft Select agreement. For further price details please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
6. Microsoft Product Use Rights
Both Microsoft server software and client access licences are subject to the general Microsoft 'Product Use Rights' current at the time of purchase (or registration of the licence). For the latest 'Product Use Rights' please see the Microsoft web pages at: http://www.microsoft.com/licensing/about-licensing/product-licensing.aspx#tab=1