Once you have decided to build a web site you need to start planning. You will need to consider what you want to achieve with the site, how it will look and work and how it will be maintained after it has been published. The following information is intended as a general guide to help you set up a web site on the personal pages web server. Guidelines for virtual hosts are also available.
1. Web User Guidelines
Detailed information regarding the Internet policy of Oxford University should be followed by all users of our services. Users should be aware that any information published electronically is subject to the same laws as hard copy publications. Under certain circumstances additional legislation may also apply. A code drawing this to the attention of all members of the University is necessary to avoid unintentional breaches of the rules and to allow the University to act when necessary. Full details of the Information Provider Guidelines For Oxford are available.
2. Web Space & Addresses
IT Services provides registered Nexus users with an allocation of additional web space with their email accounts. This free space can be used to house your web site. Each space has an address or 'URL' (Universal Resource Locator) associated with it so that the pages stored on the server can be accessed over the Internet.
Users wishing to publish personal web pages must first activate their Linux and Web Space Accounts. This is an easy and quick process! Both accounts are part of your Oxford Account used to access Nexus and WebLearn.
2.1. Activating Your Web Space Account
To activate your web space go to https://register.it.ox.ac.uk/accman/web/ where you will see the following web page:
Just click on the
Activate button to set up your web space. Once done you will then see details of your web space account:
Your filestore on the web server has a set quota of 100 megabytes.
The web space account page also lets you add your name to an index of personal web sites. You can also set up site statistics through this page which will show you how many visitors have viewed your site on a weekly basis.
2.2. Activating your Linux Account
In order to use your activated web space you also need to quickly activate your Linux account via the registration page at: https://register.it.ox.ac.uk/accman/shell
Click on the
Activate Shell Account button. The account will now be active and you will see the following screen:
You can change the type of login shell you use from the dropdown box, but for most users the default option is fine.
Please note: If you are working on linux.ox.ac.uk, you will be able to see your web space within 15 minutes of its activation. After this time it can be reached via Secure FTP.
2.3. More About Your Web Space
All personal web pages at Oxford University have URLs of the form: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~username where username is replaced by your own Oxford Single Sign-On (SSO) username. N.B. the `
~' is critical in the URL.
So if your SSO username is merlin, the URL to your personal Web directory is http://users.ox.ac.uk/~merlin/
The directory in your filestore which corresponds to the URL is called
public_html; this where the files which you want to publish should go. This is where your URL points to.
You should make a HTML file called
index.html which people will see as your Welcome (or home page) document when accessing your site. This file should be put in the
public_html directory. If
index.html does not exist, the server will return a document listing all the files in the directory. Since this is not desirable, you should always make sure there is an
index.html file in your
public_html directory, even if it just contains a link to somewhere else.
Web pages can be prepared in a text editor, word processing package or html editor. IT Services runs a variety of web publishing courses that will help you make the best of your site.
N.B. There is another directory called
cgi/bin. This folder should be used if you want to develop safe perl programs, see User-written CGI programs for more information.
WARNING: Please see note that any files you save in your personal webspace is available to the public. So, do not use this space for keeping data you wish to keep private.
3. Transferring Files to Your Web Space.
In order for your web site to be visible to the world, you need to publish it on a web server.
The default structure of your web space or file store has two directories:
The directory in your file store which corresponds to your URL, is called
public_html and this is where the files you want to publish should go. The second directory (
cgi) is used for safe perl programs (see safe CGI programs for more information). If you are using the GNU/Linux service and have just activated this for the first time you will already have links to your
cgi folders. However, if your account was activated prior to Autumn 2008, you will need to use the command
makeweblinks to set up local links to the standard
cgi folders (the Secure File Transfer Client Guides section contains information about how to use the
makeweblinks command in different programs).
public_html folder is where your web site files should be stored. The home page of your web site should be called
index.html and this should be placed in the
public_html directory. If you do not have this file in your folder, the server will return a list of all the files in that directory. This is not desirable. Further directories can be made under the
public_html folder to reflect your site structure.
The preferred method to transfer your HTML documents to the web server using Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP/SCP). The older File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is currently allowed, but we encourage users to switch to using Secure File Transfer Protocol Clients instead.
Please see the Secure File Transfer Guide for full details and client guides on how to use SFTP to transfer your files to your web space.
The first time that you want to access your web space you need to:
- Activate your
Linux Account(part of your SSO Oxford Account) by visiting https://register.it.ox.ac.uk/accman/shell and choose
Activate Shell Account
- Activate your
Web Spaceby visiting https://register.it.ox.ac.uk/accman/web/ and choose
Activate Web Space. You should be able to see your web space within 15 minutes of its activation.
- You then need to follow the connection instructions below to access your linux account. Then:
- If you are activating a brand new account links to your web folders will be created automatically.
- If you are activating an older account, then you must use the
makeweblinkscommand before you can see the folders (the Secure File Transfer Client Guides section contains information about how to use the
makeweblinkscommand in different programs).
- After links have been created navigate to your web space folder (
public_html) by clicking on the folder name..
N.B. Only when you have activated both accounts is your web space fully accessible to you.
Each time you want to access your web space you will need to:
- Open your preferred SFTP program
- Fill in your connection details as follows:
- Host Name:
- Port: 22
Your Oxford Account Usernamee.g.oucs1234
Your Oxford Account password
- Host Name:
- You will now see your linux.ox.ac.uk account space. Inside this are your
public_htmlto view your web site
- You can now transfer files to and from your web site using your SFTP client.
Note: Users uploading files using clients that do not follow symlinks can determine the full path to their webspace by SSH'ing into
linux.ox.ac.uk and using the
$ realpath ~/public_html
4. Checking and Advertising Your Site
Once you have set up your Web pages, there are some things to you should do:
- Check your HTML
- Check your pages using a general HTML validator (like that at W3C: http://validator.w3.org)
- Check Your CSS
- If your site uses CSS (recommended) you should check it using the W3C CSS validator.
- Check Site Accessibility
- Check for page accessibility by using an online checker such as WAVE: http://wave.webaim.org/. University sites must follow the University's Accessibility Standard Rules.
- Get Listed on the Personal Pages Index
- You can add your site to the list of Personal Pages by logging into Personal Web Pages. On this page you will see a sentence saying: ‘Include "Your Name" in personal pages index’. Click the
Yesradio button followed by the
Save Changesbutton to complete the process.
- Set Up Access Statistics
- Get access statistics by logging in to Personal Web Pages, On the opening page you will see Web Counts and a drop down box. Select
[Yes]and press the Save Changes button. You will receive an email once a week with details of the number of visitors your site has received. If you do not want to receive this information any more, return to the Personal Web Pages site and select
[No]from the list and save.
- Search Engine Submission
- Submit your site to the top search engines. Each search engine has its own submission pages where you can tell them about your site. Once you have submitted the URL of your site, the search engine spider will visit and index your site. There are many factors that influence where your site comes in search results. The more accessible and correctly coded your site is, the more likely the site will appear higher up in the rankings. See http://searchenginewatch.com/ for some tips about internet search engines and search engine submission.