Notice: 2023/24 Academic Year
The University’s Education Committee has approved a new Educational Recordings Policy for the 2022/23 academic year.
The following questions attempt to cover common questions raised by staff and students and should be read and used in conjunction with the policy. If teaching staff have any concerns about these questions, they should discuss them with the relevant Director of Study or Head of Department/Chair of Faculty Board.
Table of Contents
I’m a student, does the policy apply to me?
I teach/study on a short non-accredited course, does the policy apply to me?
Why is the Educational Recordings Policy needed?
Does the policy apply only to recordings of lectures?
Why does the policy use the term ‘lecture recordings’ instead of lecture capture?
How was the policy devised and agreed?
How were students involved in the creation of the policy?
Can students from other courses or visiting students, request access to the course recordings?
Can students download copies of the lecture recordings?
Does the policy apply to audio recordings?
Does the policy apply if recordings are made and stored outside of the Replay (Panopto) service?
When will the Policy apply?
What is the Replay service?
Should I tell students a lecture is being recorded?
What should I do if I don’t want my lectures to be recorded?
Where should I save my recordings: Microsoft Teams or Panopto?
How long are recordings kept in the Replay service?
What should I do if a student asks to have a recording removed from the Replay service?
What happens to my Replay recordings when I leave the University?
Is there a service for making my recordings publicly available?
How is lecture capture used at Oxford to support students with disabilities?
What should I do if I need to implement lecture recordings as a reasonable adjustment?
Can disabled students make their own recordings?
What’s the research evidence for the benefits of lecture capture and other educational recordings?
I’m worried that students will spend too long watching lecture recordings. What can I do?
Is it worth providing additional resources alongside lecture recordings?
Where lecture capture is not appropriate, what else can I do to help students engage with the material?
What are my responsibilities in providing accessible educational recordings?
Do I have to add captions to educational recordings?
What should I do if the captions are inaccurate?
Where can I find out more about inclusive teaching?
Does the policy change my rights as a lecturer?
Why am I being asked to sign a Presenter Release Licence?
Do students need to sign a release licence?
Can a department, faculty or division create their own version of the Presenter Release Licence?
Should I complete the Presenter Release Licence if I’m recording in Microsoft Teams (or other tools)?
Can recordings be released to students if the Presenter Release Licence has not been signed?
Why have I not been asked for permission to share my personal data?
Can a recording be used or reused without my permission?
Can the University use my recordings if I leave?
Can I give or share a recorded lecture at another university?
Can I include in-copyright material in an educational recording?
What if a student doesn’t want to be recorded?
What should I do if a student has shared a recording?
Where can I find the legal documents pack?
What should I do if these FAQs have not answered my question?
Educational Recordings and Lecture Capture FAQs
Yes. The policy applies whether the recordings are made by staff or students.
The policy replaces the previous policy for student-created recordings and the proforma which disabled students were asked to complete before making their own recordings.
The policy only applies to courses covered by the governance and policy for Postgraduate Taught Courses and Undergraduate Teaching and Learning and does not apply to open access courses.
The policy provides a single policy framework for educational recordings. It replaces multiple documents which dealt with lecture capture and student-created recordings.
During 2020-21 and 2021-22, Education Committee agreed that all lectures should be recorded, where facilities allowed, in order to support students whose education had been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As this emergency measure came to an end, many questions were asked about the future for recording live sessions.
The policy aims to support the responsible creation and use of recordings by providing clarity on a range of issues of concern to colleagues and students.
No, the policy applies to all types of educational recordings created for the purposes of teaching. The policy has sections on the recordings of lectures, other teaching sessions, pre-recorded content and student made recordings.
During the consultation for the new policy, departments shared examples of many ways they are creating and making use of pre-recorded content as well as recordings of lectures.
A wide range of educational recordings are created by colleagues at Oxford to support students’ learning from their lectures. These include:
· a recording of a live lecture taken during class (lecture capture)
· pre-recorded content of some of the lecture material
· recordings of reflections or outcomes of a discussion/problem during the lecture.
The use of the term ‘lecture recordings’ is intended to encourage and support this creativity and to ensure that the policy covers all these types of recordings.
The University’s Taught Degrees Panel (TDP) reviewed the policy framework for recordings during 2021-22. The policy was drafted by a working group formed with representation from Divisions, the Centre for Teaching and Learning, Education Policy Support, Educational Media Services, the Disability Advisory Service, Information Compliance, Bodleian Libraries and Oxford SU.
The draft policy was available for consultation through Hilary term 2022 and was discussed at TDP, Divisional meetings and with the Unions in their regular meetings with HR. The policy was revised in response to consultation feedback and agreed by Education Committee in summer 2022.
The Student Union was represented on the working group and continues to campaign for universal implementation of lecture capture (see Oxford SU Policy 2022/23).
The review group also made use of feedback collected from students through the pandemic and commissioned a focus group with disabled students.
Students would normally only have access to recordings to supplement the teaching for the course on which they are enrolled. There is no expectation that staff should facilitate access to lecture recordings for students who are enrolled on a different course. However, there may be instances where a student is either permitted by their course regulations or granted a dispensation to take an assessed option from a different course. In these cases a student should make a request for access to the relevant Canvas site through their own course administrator. Where the course administrator is satisfied that access is needed they will forward the request to the relevant department.
Provision for Visiting Students is covered by a number of regulations and policy documents.
No. The policy states that students are no longer permitted to download copies of recordings. Download has been turned off for recordings stored in the Replay (Panopto) service and other systems should attempt to mirror this.
Yes. The Educational Recordings Policy applies to all types of recordings whether audio, video or both.
Yes, if the recordings fall within the scope of the policy.
The Educational Recordings Policy covers recordings created and/or uploaded to the Replay service and those created and stored in other platforms e.g. Canvas, Teams, Zoom.
The Educational Recordings Policy will take effect from Michaelmas term 2022 and apply for the 2022/23 academic year.
The Replay service is the University supported service for educational videos from lecture theatres or desktop computers. The service provides a platform (currently Panopto) to create, store and distribute videos through the university and departmentally supported virtual learning environments (currently Canvas and Moodle). The Replay service is managed by Educational Media Services who can be contacted at email@example.com.
Before using other systems, users should read the latest guidance from Information Security who have published Guidelines for using Zoom and a security assessment of other video conferencing services.
Recordings created in other systems can still be uploaded to Panopto for secure storage and distribution to students via Canvas or Moodle.
Yes. You should display a 'Notice of Lecture Recording' at the start of a lecture or other teaching session which is being recorded. This should explain:
- What will be recorded (e.g. the screen and audio stream)
- Where will recordings be stored (e.g. the Panopto EU cloud server)
- How will recordings be shared (e.g. with other students in this year group registered on this programme of study via Canvas) - The email address of the Replay service (firstname.lastname@example.org) - anyone who has questions or concerns is encouraged to contact the service in this way
Remember to confirm this information verbally for students with visual disabilities. You should also make students aware of the intention to record the lecture or lecture series before the day itself, perhaps as part of a standard email communication about the course, or on the lecture list and Canvas site associated with the course.
See example poster and slide 'Notice of Recording' for in-person and remote lecture included in the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page.
If you have concerns about making lecture recordings available, you should raise these with a relevant colleague such as a Director of Undergraduate/Graduate Studies, Programme Director or your Head of Department/Chair of Faculty Board.
It may be the case that there are arrangements for recordings to be made as a reasonable adjustment for a disabled student. In this case you are obliged to provide a recording if such a requirement is in the Student Support Plan. You should discuss any concerns with your Disability Coordinator.
It is recommended that you use the Replay (Panopto) service for storing recordings and making them available to students via Canvas, even if you made the recording in MS Teams. See the Teaching Remotely Guide to Recording and sharing Microsoft Teams meetings in Panopto.
Although it is possible to keep your Teams recording in Microsoft OneDrive and share it with students from there, we do not recommend this, as it is easy to share it inadvertently with a wider audience than you intend.
Recordings are kept for 13 months since last view and then they are moved to the Archive area. Once in the Archive they are then automatically scanned by the system every summer and, if they have not been viewed for over 2 years, they are then deleted.
Material can be moved out of the archive by users or content owners with a click on the thumbnail of the content, but it will take up to 48 hours for the material to be available to be viewed. See more information on the Panopto archive function.
The archiving and retention settings can be amended by asking the Replay team to change the settings on the folder that contains the material.
The central Replay team has established a procedure that is in accordance with existing IT regulations. Students should contact their local Replay support contact in the first instance.
If a department or faculty receives a complaint about a particular recording, or wishes for a recording to be removed, please contact the central support team at email@example.com. The recording will be removed as soon as is reasonably possible.
Your Panopto account is linked to your Single Sign On (SSO). When you leave the University, your SSO is deactivated and so is your Panopto account. The recordings that were contained in your personal folder (My folder) are automatically moved into the Recycle Bin where they will remain for 3 months before being permanently deleted. Any recordings authored by you that are stored in a Canvas Course folder in the wider Panopto system will not be deleted. Deletion of these should be reviewed with your departmental or faculty administrator.
Yes, the Replay team supports the Oxford Podcasts service. Find out how to contribute to Oxford podcasts.
The provision of lecture recordings is one of the most requested adjustments in Student Support Plans. In 2021/22, analysis by the Disability Advisory Service showed that 83.7% of Student Support Plans included the recommendation to record/access recordings.
Disabled students may experience challenges that impact on their learning during a live lecture e.g., need to take frequent breaks, write or type slowly or with difficulty, experience pain or fatigue with a constant impact on concentration, experience difficulties in processing information at speed, or experience significant anxiety. These issues have a detrimental effect on a student’s ability to take meaningful lecture notes and to participate fully, hampering a student’s subsequent intellectual engagement with the ideas and concepts covered. A student with a disability might also experience a substantial impact on their attendance as a result of their disability.
Lecture capture is a tool to support and reinforce learning from the live lecture and enables better access to lecture materials for many disabled students. The Disability Advisory Service provides a guide to lecture capture as a reasonable adjustment, along with information on other adjustments to make teaching accessible to all.
Recording and uploading your lecture online has many benefits for students, including:
· reducing the need for note-taking, thus enabling more active engagement with material during the lecture
· enabling students to learn at their own pace by rewinding material that needs revisiting, speeding-up material if it is familiar, or pausing to stop and take notes, check material, or complete an activity in their own time
· avoiding a student missing a lecture, for example due to illness. For more information about other ways to make lectures more inclusive, see the Centre for Teaching and Learning’s collection of Oxford Teaching Ideas includes a guide on Making lectures inclusive.
Universities have a legal obligation under the Equality Act (2010) to make reasonable adjustments for disabled students to ensure that they are not put at a substantial disadvantage in comparison with students who are not disabled. The University of Oxford has also committed to providing ‘exemplary inclusive practice’ in the Common Framework for Supporting Disabled Students.
Inclusive practice means you do not need to wait for the Student Support Plan in order to make reasonable adjustments for a disabled student. Student Finance England’s DSA Guidance 22/23 states:
“Disabled students should arrive at university confident that any barriers to their learning have been identified, understood and appropriate steps taken to reduce their impact. The learning environment should be as inclusive as possible, so that the need for individual interventions is the exception, not the rule. Institutions should engage in a continual improvement cycle that develops inclusive practice, with the aim of reducing the number of individual interventions required.”
If your teaching is not being routinely recorded, and therefore you need to provide recordings for disabled students, your local IT officer and academic administrator/Disability Coordinator will make practical arrangements for the recording. The department/faculty will take care not to reveal the identity of the individual student unless explicit consent has been provided to do so. See Confidentiality and sharing information.
You will also need to sign the Presenter Release Licence which is included in the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page. You only need to do this once per academic year, when your first teaching session is recorded. For more information, the Disability Advisory service has an Introductory Guide to Lecture Capture for Academic Staff.
Yes, disabled students may be given permission to make educational recordings as a reasonable adjustment recorded in their Student Support Plan. Some disabled students may have been provided with recording equipment for this purpose.
If they have this provision in their Student Support Plan, they do not need to ask permission from individual academics to make a recording but it is expected they will make it known that they are doing so. For more information see the Disability Advisory Service’s Guide to student recordings of teaching as a reasonable adjustment.
The Centre for Teaching and Learning (CTL) has created an annotated bibliography on the studies which have examined the inclusivity benefits of educational recordings. This includes papers which have found a positive impact on international non-native English speakers, students from under-represented groups and disabled students, as well as the relationships between recordings and attainment for all students. The bibliography can be found at the following link: ORLO Bibliography
A report on lecture capture at Oxford in 2016, available from the CTL website, concluded that although disabled students have much to gain from the availability of recordings of lectures, over and above the benefits to the student population, it is the benefits to all students that make the case for lecture capture as an inclusive (across-the-board) service, rather than a service available only to students with disabilities.
A review of remote teaching in Trinity term 2020 available from the CTL website, showed that students valued Panopto recordings where they could pause, jump back and play recordings at different speeds in order to improve their notes, consolidate their knowledge and revise complicated topics. The recommendation was made that all lectures were recorded during the disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Student feedback collected at Oxford through 2020/21 and 2021/22 showed that students are using recordings selectively and in effective ways e.g. to pause and take notes, rewind and clarify, and speed up or slow down the lecturer’s audio. Pre-recorded lectures were valued when they were accompanied by lecture notes or handouts, broken up into chunks, organised into sections or themes and available as separate videos of 15-20 minutes. For more information, see What have we learnt from students’ experiences of digital learning through the COVID-19 pandemic? available from the CTL Project reports webpage.
In order for students to get the most benefit from lecture recordings, they will need some guidance about how to use these supplementary resources. Here are some ideas to promote effective learning strategies:
· Make it clear to students how you expect them to make use of the recordings provided
· Encourage students to watch each recording in the days after the lecture rather than saving them up to the end of term
· Suggest students revisit any parts of the lecture they found difficult or where there are gaps in their notes
· Recommend students sit together to watch the recording as a prompt for a discussion
Providing outlines of key points and prompt questions ahead of time can reduce the need of students to use lecture recordings for revision and promotes more active study. There is a guide for students on Making the most of recorded lectures – evidence based tips and ideas for students on the Study skills and training webpages for Oxford students.
Oxford students surveyed during the pandemic explained how they valued the provision of complementary resources – handouts, lecture notes and PowerPoint slides – alongside lecture recordings. Comments included ‘It is helpful if lecture slides/notes provided include writing as well as diagrams’ or ‘I really appreciate it when all the written materials (such as lecture handouts) are designed to be self-contained’.
See CTL’s reviews of What we have learnt from students’ experiences of digital learning through the COVID-19 pandemic (November 2021)? available from the CTL Project reports webpage.
There may be times when lecture capture is not appropriate. The Educational Recordings Policy gives examples of where this may be the case, including lectures with high degrees of interactivity and where material is deemed to be controversial.
Here are some ideas for alternatives to lecture capture:
- Make an audio recording after the lecture/class summarising the discussion (or ask students to take turns to do this)
- Pre-record a section of the lecture to e.g. to explain key concepts or ideas
- Upload the lecture slides or notes to Canvas
- Prepare a set of prompt questions around the topic to guide independent study
- Share a problem sheet with worked examples
- List core readings, with questions for students to consider
Many students further benefit from receiving some of these alternative ideas before the lecture and being encouraged to prepare ahead of time to make the most out of the lecture.
Accessibility needs to be considered when you create material and when you are considering reuse. That means making sure that people can use and get the full benefit from recordings regardless of any disability or impairment. The key accessibility requirement for videos is providing captions for those who are hard of hearing
Other ways to make lecture recordings accessible include:
· Sit/stand at a consistent distance from your microphone and avoid turning away from it while speaking.
· Describe visual content for people who are visually impaired.
· Make slides and other learning materials available as separate files, either in Panopto or Canvas. This is particularly important if visual aids are unlikely to be recorded at a sufficient quality for the recording.
· Add structure to the recording by pausing before starting a new theme
The guide to Creating accessible educational recordings provides further tips for lecturers on how to ensure recordings are accessible.
Automated captions are generated for all videos uploaded to the Replay (Panopto) service by default. See the Closed caption guidance for Replay. If you find that your recorded lectures do not have automatic captioning, please alert your departmental Replay contact.
Live captions and transcripts are also available within Microsoft Teams meetings, and you should make your students aware of how to turn on this functionality when live-streaming in Teams. They are turned on by default for recordings and can be also turned on for all participants. See the guide on Creating captions or transcripts in Teams meetings. The guide to Creating accessible educational recordings provides further tips for lecturers on how to ensure recordings are accessible including captions for languages other than English.
Automatic speech recognition has improved in recent years, but some inaccuracies will remain. Staff are not expected to manually edit captions or transcripts and access to video content should not be restricted where it has not been possible to eliminate errors.
If you are a student and require manually edited captions for increased accuracy, or text description of visual content as a reasonable adjustment, please contact the University Disability Advisory Service via firstname.lastname@example.org. For further information see the Oxford University Panopto Accessibility Statement.
Inclusive teaching means valuing the diversity of our students and responding to the different barriers to learning that these students encounter. Academic and professional staff play a pivotal role in making Oxford more inclusive, and everyone can make a difference.
The Centre for Teaching and Learning has published a range of resources to support inclusive teaching. A good starting point is the collection of Oxford Teaching Ideas which includes guides on ‘Key principles of inclusive teaching’ and ‘Making lectures inclusive’. The Introduction to Inclusive Teaching online course showcases a range of inclusive teaching practices that are applicable across different disciplines throughout the collegiate university.
No. The Educational Recordings Policy clarifies the existing rights of staff who are making recordings or being recorded. It does not change them.
Under its Statutes the University does not claim ownership of the intellectual property of some aspects of educational recordings (e.g. the words or presentation slides of a lecture); these rights are retained by the member(s) of staff making the recording and contributing content.
The Presenter Release Licence is the way in which staff give their permission for the University to store and distribute their recordings . This applies to all staff employed by the University whether or not the educational recordings are created as part of their core duties or stint of work.
The Licence is included in the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page.
In most cases there is no need for students to sign a release licence before the recording is shared. This includes a recording which incidentally includes a student contribution.
The only situation in which you would need to seek permission from students is where their contribution is likely to give rise to independent performance rights, for example if students are presenting their own work or performing for an assessed task. In this case you should ask students to complete the Participant Release Licence.
The Licence is included in the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page.
Yes, the Presenter Release Licence can be used as a template. The legal text cannot be modified or changed but the format can be changed to fit with local administration of the form. Some departments have created online versions of these forms for easier management.
In all cases, the Replay process of 'Presenter' and, if appropriate, 'Participant’ Release licences remains the same regardless of the technology used to record the session. See the IT Services guidance on recording a meeting in Microsoft Teams.
Recordings made for teaching purposes should ideally be uploaded to Panopto so all teaching materials are available via Canvas.
No. A signed version of the Presenter Release Licence is a requirement before recordings can be released. Departments or faculties should keep a record of signed licenses and undertake an annual process of updating permissions to cover recordings to be made in that academic year.
The personal data contained within and related to educational recordings does not require permission to be processed. The primary legal basis that the University uses for processing staff data in educational recordings is ‘public task’ as the activity is core to the University’s purposes of teaching and research. The University can rely on that legal basis for the duration that recordings are retained in accordance with this policy.
No. The recording can only be used by the University under the terms of the Presenter Release Licence that you have signed for that academic year. Reuse always requires the permission of creator(s) and can be facilitated by staff re-signing the Presenter Release License for the upcoming year.
This means that you should always know how recordings made in previous years will be used by your department, and have the opportunity to give or refuse your permission.
Yes, but only under the terms of the Presenter Release Licence that you have signed. This will specify the academic year of the students for which the recordings are intended.
Yes. You will continue to own any intellectual property rights you may have in the educational recording and nothing in the Presenter Release Licence prevents you from using or licensing others to use the educational recording.
Although it is the lecturer’s responsibility not to infringe anyone else’s intellectual property rights, this does not necessarily mean that your lecture can only include material you have created yourself. There may be material which is out of copyright due to its age, used with permission, licensed under a Creative Commons licence or used under one of the so-called Fair Dealing exemptions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. For more information see.
Under the ‘fair dealing’ legal exceptions for education, presenters can use a ‘fair’ amount of copyrighted materials i.e. an amount that is reasonable and appropriate, and only using as much as necessary. You should acknowledge this source, creator and/or copyright owner and only make the material available to your students and other staff teaching/preparing the course.
Further guidance on copyright exceptions for education, including changes to the law made in 2014 to cover online teaching, is available on this UK government page: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/exceptions-to-copyright
There is a complementary easy-to-read guide for copyright issues in teaching from the UK government: Exceptions to Copyright - Education and Teaching, October 2014. The Bodleian Libraries also provide guidance on copyright issues.
It is important that students know in advance that a lecture or class will be recorded. They should have the opportunity to raise any concerns they have with the lecturer/tutor in advance. Students who raise concerns about being recorded may be reassured by an explanation of how the recording will be stored and shared.
You might explore with your students other options for their participation in classes that are to be recorded, e.g.:
· Encouraging students to email questions in advance.
· Recording parts of the session where students contribute less (e.g. where the tutor/lecturer sets the scene and/or the summary discussion) and not recording the section where more student contributions are expected.
· Recording a short summary of the session after it has finished. Students could take turns to do this.
· In a live class, using a lapel mic or boundary mic that does not pick up students’ contributions
· In an online class, recording the lecturer’s microphone but not the students' microphones.
If it is applicable, you might also need to explain that the recording must be made as a reasonable adjustment for a disabled student, taking care not to reveal the identity of the individual unless they have given you explicit consent to do so. See Confidentiality and sharing information. You are obliged to provide a recording if it’s a reasonable adjustment in a Student Support Plan. Where a disabled student is making their own recording, they should pause the recording while that student speaks.
Any breach of the conditions of the End User Licence may result in action under the University’s Code of Discipline or prompt legal proceedings (which may still be an option after a student has left the University). Users agree to the licence the first time they login to Panopto and any time the agreement is changed. A copy of the current text is available from the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page.
If a potential breach of the End User Licence is identified, then this should be referred to the Proctors for investigation. It is important that any potential breaches are reported so that the impact of the Educational Recordings Policy can be monitored.
A set of legal documents accompany the Educational Recordings Policy. Please make sure you are using the most recent versions from the legal pack available from the Replay downloads page.
Local IT and administration staff provide your first line of Lecture Capture support.
For more complex queries, contact the central Replay team at email@example.com.
The Centre for Teaching and Learning provides a dedicated helpdesk service to support staff. The service provides help from experts in several areas including digital education, educational development, and the Canvas VLE. https://www.ctl.ox.ac.uk/helpdesk-service.